Lead-acid battery introduction
The electrode is mainly made of lead and its oxide, and the electrolyte is a battery of a sulfuric acid solution. English: Lead-acid battery. In the discharge state, the main component of the positive electrode is lead dioxide, and the main component of the negative electrode is lead; in the state of charge, the main components of the positive and negative electrodes are lead sulfate. Divided into exhaust battery and maintenance-free lead-acid battery.
The battery is mainly composed of a tubular positive plate, a negative plate, an electrolyte, a separator, a battery tank, a battery cover, a pole, a liquid injection cover and the like. The electrode of the vented battery is composed of an oxide of lead and lead, and the electrolyte is an aqueous solution of sulfuric acid. The main advantage is that the voltage is stable and the price is cheap; the disadvantage is that the specific energy is low (that is, the energy stored per kilogram of the battery), the service life is short, and the daily maintenance is frequent. Old-fashioned ordinary batteries generally have a life span of about 2 years, and it is necessary to regularly check the height of the electrolyte and add distilled water. However, with the development of technology, the life of lead-acid batteries has become longer and the maintenance is simpler.
The most obvious feature of a lead-acid battery is that it has a screw-open plastic sealing cap on top and a venting hole. These filling caps are used to fill pure water, check electrolytes and vent gases. In theory, lead-acid batteries need to check the density and level of the electrolyte at each maintenance. If there is a shortage, add distilled water. However, with the upgrade of battery manufacturing technology, lead-acid batteries have developed into lead-acid maintenance-free batteries and gel-free maintenance-free batteries. Lead-acid batteries do not require the addition of electrolyte or distilled water. The main purpose is to use the positive electrode to generate oxygen to absorb the oxygen in the negative electrode to prevent the water from decreasing. Lead-acid water batteries are mostly used in tractors, tricycles, and automobile starters, while maintenance-free lead-acid batteries have a wider range of applications, including uninterruptible power supplies, electric vehicle power, and electric bicycle batteries. Lead-acid batteries are classified into constant current discharges (such as uninterruptible power supplies) and transient discharges (such as automotive start batteries) depending on the application.
Classification of lead-acid batteries
1) Ordinary battery: The plate of an ordinary battery is composed of oxides of lead and lead, and the electrolyte is an aqueous solution of sulfuric acid. Its main advantage is that the voltage is stable and the price is cheap. The disadvantages are lower specific energy (ie stored energy per kilogram of battery), short life and frequent maintenance.
2) Dry-charged battery: Its full name is dry-charged lead-acid battery. Its main feature is that the negative plate has high storage capacity. In the completely dry state, it can save the obtained power within two years. When you just need to add the electrolyte, wait 20-30 minutes to use.
3) Maintenance-free battery: Maintenance-free battery due to its own structural advantages, the consumption of electrolyte is very small, and it is basically unnecessary to supplement distilled water during the service life. It also has the characteristics of shock resistance, high temperature resistance, small size and small self-discharge. The service life is generally twice that of a normal battery. There are also two kinds of maintenance-free batteries on the market: the first one does not require maintenance (adding replenishing liquid) after the one-time addition of electrolyte at the time of purchase; the other is that the battery itself has been charged with electrolyte and sealed. The user cannot add replenishing liquid at all.
According to the mechanical industry standard JB 2599-1985 "Lead-acid battery product model preparation method", the lead-acid battery model consists of three parts, the content and arrangement are as follows:
Number of cells in series - battery type - battery characteristics - battery capacity
(1) Number of cells connected in series
The number of cells connected in series refers to the number of cells in the battery assembly, which is represented by one Arabic numeral.
(2) Battery type
According to its main use, it is represented by a Chinese phonetic alphabet. The activated lead-acid battery is represented by “Q”, and the code “Q” is the first Chinese phonetic alphabet of “from”. (M is a battery for motorcycles, JC is not a battery for ships, HK is a battery for aviation, D is a battery for electric vehicles, and F is a battery for valve control.)
(3) Battery characteristics
The battery is characterized by an additional part, expressed in a Chinese phonetic alphabet, which has certain characteristics only for products of the same type and must be used in the model. When the product has two characteristics at the same time, the two codes should be juxtaposed in the order of Table 2-2.
(4) rated capacity
The rated capacity refers to the 20h discharge rate rated capacity, expressed in Arabic numerals, and the unit is A·h, which can be omitted in the model number. Sometimes a special character is indicated by a letter after the rated capacity, such as "G" for high starting rate, "S" for plastic housing, and "D" for good low temperature startability.
12v lead-acid battery model specification sheet：