It is understood that when the radioactive material decays, the charged particles can be released, and if used correctly, current can be generated. Normally unstable (ie, radioactive) nuclei can decay and become more stable after emitting particles and energy. Nuclear batteries are made by the principle that the decay of radioactive materials will release energy. Nuclear batteries have been used in military or aerospace fields, but they are often large in size. One of the major difficulties in the past in the development of batteries was to improve performance, and the battery size was often larger than the product itself. The research team led by the Department of Computer Engineering at the University of Missouri in the United States successfully reduced the "nuclear battery" and developed a "nuclear battery" that is small but powerful. However, the nuclear battery developed by the author's group is only slightly larger than 1 cent coin (1.95 cm in diameter and 1.55 mm thick), but the power is 1 million times that of ordinary chemical batteries. The University of Missouri research team said that their goal in developing small nuclear batteries is to find a suitable source of energy for microelectromechanical systems or nanoscale electromechanical systems. How to find a small enough energy source device for micro or nano-scale electromechanical systems is a hot research field like microdevices.
Advantages and disadvantages of nuclear power batteries
The energy and speed of the nuclear battery during decay are not affected by temperature, chemical reaction, pressure, electromagnetic field, etc. in the external environment.
The isotopes that provide electricity for nuclear batteries work for very long periods of time, possibly even up to 5,000 years.
Radioactive contamination must be properly protected; and once the battery is assembled, whether or not it is used, the electrical properties will decline as the radioactive source decays.