Why do electric bicycles have a short battery life in winter?

Date:Oct 06, 2019

Electric bicycles do not have a long battery life in the summer when they are in the summer. In fact, the capacity of the battery itself has not changed. The change should be that the resistance becomes larger. Compared with the summer, the resistance of the winter becomes larger. To achieve the same power, the output of the current can only be increased. So with the same capacity, the battery seems to consume very quickly. The internal resistance of the battery is related to temperature. The lower the temperature, the higher the internal resistance, so the consumption in winter is particularly fast.

One reason is that most of the current electric vehicles are lead-acid batteries. A lead-acid battery is a recyclable battery. The battery has a long electrode plate. The positive electrode is a layer of lead dioxide, and the negative electrode is a metal lead. Both electrodes are immersed in a sulfuric acid solution. This lead-acid battery is generally used in an environment of 15 to 35 degrees Celsius. Moreover, the storage capacity of such a battery is proportional to the ambient temperature. When the temperature drops, the battery's storage capacity drops. In fact, the temperature affects the chemical reaction inside the lead-acid battery. Therefore, when the temperature drops below 15 °C, the storage capacity of the lead-acid battery will be lower than the storage capacity at the normal temperature. Therefore, riding an electric car in winter is not far away, which is also a normal phenomenon.

Another battery we often use is called a lithium battery. When the battery is discharged, the internal voltage will not only decrease, but also have a grading phenomenon, and this phenomenon will cause the voltage to continue to decrease. The reason is that lithium ions are internally distributed unevenly due to discharge, causing a relatively slow voltage change. This process requires more current to maintain the output. Even more coincidentally, this grading phenomenon is also related to temperature, and low temperature makes this analysis phenomenon easier to produce. So this is also a reason for the accelerated battery consumption in winter.

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