At present, there are three main recycling modes for power batteries in China: First, the government departments cooperate with new energy companies to use used power batteries for energy storage or other fields. Second, it is recycled by a dedicated battery recycling company. Third, the car companies themselves established a recycling system to recycle the decommissioned power batteries sold by them. With the continuous development of new energy vehicles and power batteries, the problem of recycling and utilization of power batteries has become increasingly prominent, and countries are also in the midst of an intensive layout:
China: Car companies are responsible for the recycling of power batteries
Legislation: In the past two years, the Chinese government has continuously introduced relevant policies and strives to standardize and guide the healthy and orderly development of the power battery recycling industry. The local government has also actively established a new energy vehicle power battery recycling system, and actively guided social capital to participate in the recycling of power batteries by issuing a list of pilot enterprises and establishing a power battery recycling industry alliance.
Review of related policies on power battery recycling in 2018
In February of this year, China’s seven ministries and commissions jointly issued a power battery recycling management method, clearly stating that “automobile production enterprises should establish a power battery recycling channel, responsible for recycling used and used batteries after the use of new energy vehicles”. Responsible for battery recycling.
Enterprise: At present, some enterprises in China specialize in battery recycling, such as GEM, Bangpu, Huayou Cobalt, Guangdong Guanghua, and Zhangzhou Haopeng, etc., which have relatively mature waste battery recycling technology. Batch regeneration disposal capacity.
BYD is the only self-developed self-produced battery among all new energy passenger car companies. If the recovered battery can continue to be used, it will be applied to the home energy storage or base station backup power supply in the future. If the battery can no longer be reused, it will be transported to the relevant department of BYD Battery Material Factory for dismantling and recycling. Relatively speaking, BYD has the most complete battery recycling chain among domestic new energy vehicles. Beiqi New Energy is trying to use the “switching mode” to make efficient use of all aspects of the power battery. At present, the power station adopts the intelligent micro-grid system of “replacement + energy storage + photovoltaic”, and the energy storage equipment recovered from the decommissioned battery uses the photovoltaic power generation and the national grid peak and valley electricity to supply power to the vehicle. At present, the largest power battery recycling cooperation in China is the alliance of 16 enterprises and China Tower. As long as the energy storage battery replacement and new station of the tower communication base station adopt the power battery used by the ladder, it can absorb more than 80% of the waste in 2020. Power Battery.
Japan: Battery manufacturers bear the responsibility for battery recycling
In the Japanese model, the construction of the recycling system is enterprise-led, using the service network of retailers, car dealers or gas stations to recycle used batteries to consumers.
Since 2000, the Japanese government has begun to advocate the "battery production - sales - recycling - recycling treatment" recycling system, clearing the battery manufacturer's responsibility for battery recycling. The manufacturer is responsible for the recovery of nickel-metal hydride and lithium batteries, and gives the resource recycling design for the product; after the battery is recycled, the government will give the corresponding subsidies to the production enterprises to improve the recycling enthusiasm. In October 2018, Toyota and Nissan and other Japanese automakers jointly launched the recycling of lithium-ion battery projects for electric vehicles, and jointly promoted the development of power battery recycling. The project will initially set up factories in seven prefectures and counties in Japan, and will later build more battery recycling facilities across the country.
The operation mode of the project is: after the vehicle disassembly network receives the used electric vehicle, the decommissioned battery will be dismantled and then transferred to the recycling factory mentioned above for processing. Automakers need to pay a certain processing fee to the Japanese Automobile Recycling Agency.
US: Battery manufacturers bear primary responsibility
The US government has stipulated that battery manufacturers are responsible for major battery recycling and promote the establishment of a battery recycling network. In addition, the American International Battery Association has also established a deposit system to encourage consumers to take the initiative to turn over the waste battery products.
Legislation: The United States has enacted the Resource Protection and Recycling Law, the Mercury-Containing Batteries and Rechargeable Battery Management Law, and the production and collection of used secondary batteries for the federal, state, and local levels. The corresponding technical specifications are proposed in the process of transportation, storage and so on.
In December 2017, US President Trump issued US Executive Order No. 13017, which determined the need to “develop key mineral recovery and reprocessing technologies” as part of a broader strategy to “safe and secure supply of critical minerals”. .
In February 2019, the US Department of Energy (DOE) introduced the first lithium-ion battery recycling center called the ReCell Center. The goal of the ReCell Center is to promote closed-loop recycling, where materials from used batteries can be recycled directly, minimizing energy consumption and waste by eliminating mining and processing steps.
Australia: Unlike China, Japan and Korea, where there are fewer people, Australia is a country with a sparsely populated area. Therefore, in the recovery of power batteries, there will be problems in collecting and transporting difficulties.
At present, Australia's power battery collection and recovery rate is only about 2%. In the past few years, the grid and off-grid renewable energy storage market segments (from residential to large grid applications) have been growing rapidly. In addition, the electric vehicle market segment has also grown and is expected to expand rapidly in the coming decades.
Germany: Battery producers bear primary responsibility
According to the German regulations on battery recycling: in Germany, battery production and importers must be registered with the government, dealers should organize the recovery mechanism, and users are obliged to hand over the used batteries to the designated recycling agency. This implementation of the producer responsibility extension system and the establishment of a perfect battery recycling system. In terms of legislation, Germany has now established a relatively complete legal system for recycling. At the same time, the German Ministry of the Environment funded two power battery recycling demonstration projects (Libri project and LithoRec project) to conduct research on the utilization of waste power batteries.