Battery Classification

Battery Classification

Date:Apr 25, 2019

I think everyone has heard that "a button battery can pollute 600,000 liters of water, which is equal to the amount of water that a person can drink in a lifetime. A dry battery will cause a square meter of land to lose its use value." The recycling of used batteries has been carried out in China for more than 20 years, and its influence covers many primary and secondary schools and colleges. Most people have participated in similar environmental activities. However, after the event, everyone will find that there are some channels in our daily life that are very lacking in battery recycling.So is there a need to recycle the battery?How to recycle used batteries?Let's uncover these mysteries for everyone.

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Zinc manganese battery

Zinc-manganese batteries used to be batteries that are used in large quantities in life, and have low cost and high power. The early carbon-zinc battery was gradually eliminated due to its toxic substance mercury, which was harmful to the environment. Some improved versions will indicate mercury-free alkaline batteries, but the acidic or alkaline electrolytes they contain will still be harmful to the environment.

Cadmium, nickel-hydrogen battery

The battery usually has a Ni-Cd or Ni-H designation. The former contains heavy metal cadmium, which also pollutes the environment; while the latter is a modified version of nickel-cadmium batteries because it does not contain heavy metal cadmium, it is also called an environmentally friendly battery and can be discarded as general waste.

 Lead storage battery

Also known as lead-acid batteries, English Leadacid battery. is widely used in automotive products or uninterruptible power systems. It is currently the largest and most versatile battery in the world.

  lithium battery

There will be a Li-ion label on the lithium battery. According to the electrode material of the lithium battery itself, it can be divided into nickel-lithium battery (LiNiO2), nickel-cobalt lithium battery (LiNi0.8Co0.2O2), manganese lithium battery (LiMn2O4), ternary battery (iNi0.3Co0.3Mn0.3O2). And lithium iron phosphate battery (LiFePO4) and the like. Lithium batteries are widely used in the computer, communication and consumer electronics industries known as the 3C industry due to their high energy density, no memory effect, and wide operating temperature range.


Simply speaking, it is necessary, after all, is a chemical. However, the environmental hazards of the used batteries are mainly due to the heavy metal elements they contain. Among them, arsenic, lead, cadmium, cadmium and mercury are the most harmful to the environment.

Zinc-manganese batteries contain additive mercury, lead-acid batteries contain lead, and nickel-cadmium batteries contain cadmium. We can do a rough calculation, a button battery of about five grams, assuming 30% mercury, which is about 1.5 grams of mercury. According to the national standard for mercury content of the second type of surface water, 5 micrograms, this battery can contaminate 30,000 liters of water. In this case, the pollution caused by the battery we described earlier is not alarmist.

However, the actual situation does not have to worry. In recent years, with the strong publicity of the country and the encouragement of the policy, the largest production of mercury-containing zinc-manganese batteries and nickel-cadmium batteries have been replaced by mercury-free alkaline batteries. The "Technical Policy for the Prevention and Control of Waste Battery Pollution" promulgated by China stipulates that the production of zinc-manganese batteries with a mercury content greater than 0.0001% will be discontinued from January 1, 2005. Since lead-acid batteries have a recycling value, there is basically no discarding. In recent years, China has successively introduced industry regulations on lead storage batteries (2015) and pollution prevention policies for used batteries (2016), which has further increased the recovery rate of lead storage batteries. In the United States and Canada, in order to prevent lead pollution, states also have specialized agencies responsible for recycling. As for nickel-cadmium batteries, after decades of development, and replaced by environmentally friendly batteries - cadmium-free nickel-metal hydride batteries. However, due to the memory effect, nickel-metal hydride batteries have been replaced by lithium batteries with excellent performance and no memory effect in recent years, and have gradually withdrawn from the market.

In general, things that have both recycling value and recycling are the most easily recycled. However, the current situation in China is that lead storage batteries have economic value but no mature way. Thousands of small workshops pollute the environment under improper treatment processes; while such as manganese-zinc batteries and lithium-ion batteries have collection channels, they are complicated by models. The process is complicated, the quantity is lacking, and the value of recycling is lacking.

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