With the rapid development of lithium-ion batteries in recent years and the vigorous promotion of national policies, we all think that it is now the era of lithium-ion batteries, and traditional batteries such as lead-acid batteries have already been eliminated. If you think so, you must be deceived by the strong policy of national policy. But now it is still the world of lead-acid batteries, at least in the next few years, lead-acid batteries will occupy a solid position.
Lead acid battery industry overview
Industry technical level and technical characteristics. With the gradual increase of environmental verification and the gradual deepening of the implementation of the “Regulations”, the lead-acid battery industry will further improve the entry barriers, eliminate backward production capacity, basically realize mechanized manufacturing, and effectively improve the technical level.
Lead-acid battery industry-specific business model
Lead-acid battery companies generally purchase on-demand in conjunction with orders. Since lead accounts for a relatively large amount of capital in the procurement of raw materials, industry enterprises generally establish close cooperation with large-scale lead smelting enterprises, and also purchase through bulk commodity agents.
Industry enterprises generally adopt a production mode that is fixed by sales, and some common specifications products set a certain safety stock.
The plate products are mainly sold to domestic lead-acid battery manufacturers. Lead-acid battery industry products are generally sold to domestic and foreign countries. Domestic sales are mainly sold directly to communication operators, UPS manufacturers, emergency electrical appliance manufacturers, etc. The automobile start-up maintenance market and electric bicycle maintenance market generally adopt a distribution model. Foreign sales are mainly sold to foreign traders, or directly to communications operators, UPS manufacturers, etc. by setting up local offices.
The cyclical, regional and seasonal characteristics of the industry. The periodic characteristics of the lead-acid battery industry are not obvious.
Lead-acid batteries are widely used in transportation, communications, power, railway, defense, computer and scientific research, and are the basic products of the national economy.
The characteristics of lead-acid batteries that have a certain service life and need to be replaced periodically determine the rigidity of their demand. The regionality of the lead-acid battery industry is not obvious, mainly because it is the basic product of the national economy. The primary market of lead-acid batteries (supporting market) is not obvious seasonally, and the secondary market (replacement market) has certain differences in light and peak seasons. In autumn and winter, due to the drop in temperature, batteries for outdoor use are affected by temperature, capacity and performance are degraded, and replacement demand is increased compared to spring and summer.
The relationship between lead-acid battery industry and upstream and downstream industries
The upstream industries of lead-acid batteries are mainly lead smelting industry and lead traders (bulk dealers), sulfuric acid production, plastics manufacturing, etc. Lead-acid batteries are the basic products of the national economy and are widely used in various fields such as transportation, communications, electric power, railways, national defense, computers, and emergency equipment. With the development of economy and technology, the demand for lead-acid batteries in these industries is increasing. At the same time, the level of lead-acid battery technology continues to improve, product quality and performance continue to improve, its application areas continue to expand, and downstream industry demand continues to emerge. With the establishment and improvement of the lead-acid battery recycling system, the lead-acid battery industry chain will form a benign “resource-product-renewable resource” closed-loop structure, which is expected to become a resource-saving circular development industry.
Classification of lead-acid batteries
According to the application field, China's lead-acid batteries can be divided into four categories: backup power battery, energy storage battery, starter battery and power battery.
The backup power battery is a battery mainly used for communication backup power, uninterruptible power supply (UPS), emergency lighting power supply and other backup power supplies.
Energy storage battery refers to an energy storage battery suitable for solar power generation equipment and wind power generators and other renewable energy sources.
The starting battery is a battery mainly used in automobile, motorcycle, fuel engine starting, ignition and lighting.
Power batteries are mainly used in electric bicycles, electric special vehicles (electric tour buses, golf cars, patrol cars, forklifts, etc.), low-speed electric passenger cars, hybrid electric vehicles and other electric vehicles as power.
Analysis of supply and demand situation of lead-acid battery industry
In 2017, the global lead-acid battery market was about 42.9 billion US dollars (up 1% year-on-year), and it is expected to maintain a growth rate of 1% in the next five years. In the global market, lead-acid batteries occupy a dominant position in the battery market due to their mature technology, high safety, high recycling efficiency, suitable temperature bandwidth, stable voltage, good combination consistency and low price. However, environmental issues will be a key factor affecting the future lead-acid battery market. The lead-acid battery production process uses a large amount of heavy metal lead. If the pollutant emission cannot be effectively controlled, it will have adverse effects on the environment. The development of lead-acid batteries faces greater pressure from public opinion. The lead consumption of lead-acid batteries in the United States accounts for more than 95% of the total lead in the country. Due to sound regulations and effective management, lead emissions from lead-acid battery production account for only 1.5% of total emissions. In 2008, the US government Lead-acid battery production is excluded from major lead sources. In addition, reducing vehicle emissions and improving fuel efficiency will also lead to changes in the market for lead-acid batteries for automobiles, which is expected to maintain a growth rate of 1% in the next five years.
In 2015, the global lead-acid battery market share was 54.67%, and it is expected to grow slowly in the next few years. Lead-acid batteries As the largest battery type in the global market, the global market size is expected to continue to grow. In 2015, the global lead-acid battery market grew by 1.57% from the previous year to reach 43.208 billion US dollars. It is expected to maintain a growth rate of 1%-2% in the next five years. From the perspective of global lead-acid battery supply, lead-acid battery shipments increased by 2.75% in 2015 compared with the previous year, and shipments reached 468 million kVAh. It is expected that shipments will maintain growth between 2% and 3% in the next five years. speed.
China is the world's largest producer, consumer and exporter of lead-acid batteries. China's lead-acid battery industry mainly implements fixed production. The number of lead-acid battery production minus the number of exports is roughly the domestic consumption. From 2005 to 2016, the output of lead-acid batteries in domestic enterprises showed a volatility growth, with an average annual compound growth rate of 10.17%. In 2014, it was the highest point, and after that it was hit by lithium-ion batteries, production began to decrease slowly.
Lead-acid battery market competition status
China's lead-acid battery production ranks first in the world, and start-up production accounts for half of lead-acid batteries. From the scale of global lead-acid battery capacity, China is a big producer with a global output of about 45%, followed by the United States, with a production share of about 32%, and Japan ranks third with a ratio of nearly 13%. There are also Germany and so on. The top producers of lead-acid battery sales in the world include American Reot Group, EXIDE Group (including German Sunshine), Japan Yuasa, Xiendi and Japan Matsushita. Lead-acid battery is the world's largest battery product, accounting for 50% of the total battery, accounting for 70% of rechargeable batteries. Even in the world's most developed countries and regions such as Europe, America and Japan, it is still mass-produced and Use a lead-acid battery. In the lead-acid battery product structure, the startup type lead-acid battery accounted for the largest proportion, reaching 48%, followed by the power type lead-acid battery, accounting for 28%, and the standby and energy storage type lead-acid battery accounted for 15%.