1. In the 1970s, Exxon’s M.S. Whittingham used titanium sulfide as the cathode material and metallic lithium as the anode material to make the first lithium battery.
2. In 1980, J. Goodenough discovered that lithium cobalt oxide can be used as a cathode material for lithium ion batteries.
3 In 1982, R.R. Agarwal and J.R. Selman of the Illinois Institute of Technology discovered that lithium ions have the characteristic of intercalating graphite. This process is fast and reversible. At the same time, the safety hazards of lithium batteries made of metal lithium have attracted much attention. Therefore, people have tried to make rechargeable batteries using the characteristics of lithium ions embedded in graphite. The first available lithium ion graphite electrode was successfully trial-produced by Bell Laboratories.
4 In 1983, M. Thackeray, J. Goodenough and others discovered that manganese spinel is an excellent cathode material, with low price, stability and excellent conductivity and lithium conductivity. Its decomposition temperature is high, and its oxidation is much lower than that of lithium cobalt oxide. Even if there is a short circuit or overcharge, it can avoid the danger of combustion and explosion.
5 In 1989, A. Manthiram and J. Goodenough discovered that a positive electrode with a polymer anion would produce a higher voltage.
6 In 1991, Sony released the first commercial lithium-ion battery. Subsequently, lithium-ion batteries revolutionized the face of consumer electronics.
7 In 1996, Padhi and Goodenough discovered that phosphates with an olivine structure, such as lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4), are more superior than traditional cathode materials, and therefore have become the current mainstream cathode materials.
Due to the very active chemical properties of lithium metal, the processing, storage, and use of lithium metal have very high environmental requirements. Therefore, the production of lithium batteries must be carried out under special environmental conditions. However, due to the many advantages of lithium batteries, lithium batteries are widely used in electronic instruments, digital and home appliances. However, most lithium batteries are secondary batteries, and there are also disposable batteries. A few secondary batteries have poor life and safety.
Later, Sony Corporation of Japan invented a lithium battery with carbon material as the negative electrode and lithium-containing compound as the positive electrode. During the charging and discharging process, there is no metal lithium, only lithium ions. This is a lithium ion battery. When the battery is charged, lithium ions are generated on the positive electrode of the battery, and the generated lithium ions move to the negative electrode through the electrolyte. The carbon as the negative electrode has a layered structure. It has many micropores. The lithium ions reaching the negative electrode are inserted into the micropores of the carbon layer. The more lithium ions are inserted, the higher the charging capacity. Similarly, when the battery is discharged (the process we use the battery), the lithium ions embedded in the carbon layer of the negative electrode are released and move back to the positive electrode. The more lithium ions returned to the positive electrode, the higher the discharge capacity. What we usually call battery capacity refers to discharge capacity. During the charging and discharging process of Li-ion, lithium ions are in a state of movement from positive to negative to positive. Li-ion Batteries is like a rocking chair. The two ends of the rocking chair are the poles of the battery, and the lithium ion runs back and forth in the rocking chair like an athlete. So Li-ion Batteries are also called rocking chair batteries.
With the widespread use of digital products such as mobile phones, notebook computers and other products, lithium-ion batteries have been widely used in such products with excellent performance, and have gradually developed into other product applications in recent years. In 1998, Tianjin Power Research Institute began commercial production of lithium-ion batteries. Traditionally, people refer to lithium-ion batteries as lithium batteries, but these two types of batteries are different. Now lithium-ion batteries have become the mainstream.
According to the data in the "China's Lithium Battery Industry Market Demand Forecast and Investment Strategic Planning Analysis Report", the outstanding problem of China's lithium battery industry is the unabated investment in the industrial chain, while disorderly competition intensifies, downstream demand continues to weaken, and the industry is struggling to move forward in China The development path of the lithium battery industry is basically a grassroots growth and formation. Enterprises are basically a single business operation. The characteristics are: limited strength, small scale, high survival pressure, and difficult sustainable development. However, due to the vast market space for new energy vehicles and the continuous support of government policies, the investment in China's lithium battery industry chain has not diminished, and disorderly competition in the industry has intensified.
The low-end manufacturing link has serious overcapacity, and the high-end link has insufficient investment, and the price of lithium battery raw materials continues to fall. From the industrial development path, based on the field of consumer electronics, it is a normal development track to use small and medium lithium batteries such as electric tools and electric bicycles as development opportunities, and then to hybrid batteries and finally to pure electric batteries. At present, power tools and electric bicycles are still dominated by nickel-cadmium and lead-acid batteries, and the application of lithium batteries is developing slowly; the main hybrid technology is abroad, and hybrid car products are mainly foreign brands. From the perspective of national support, more Tilt more to pure electric vehicles. However, because pure electric materials and technologies are still far from large-scale application, the demand is insufficient, and the lithium battery industry chain is facing the embarrassing situation of unabated investment but weak demand.
Although the road is tortuous, the prospects are still bright. The domestic upstream battery materials have already stepped out of the introduction period and entered a period of rapid growth. A group of materials companies with international advanced levels have emerged. These companies focus on core technology development and collaborate with them to jointly develop products for the different needs of downstream customers. Through its own strong technological development capabilities and customer service capabilities, it has won customer recognition and has continuously entered the supply chain system of top battery manufacturers. Further enhance their own strength through collaboration and cooperation, and achieve a virtuous circle.
With the rapid advancement of core technologies and the continuous increase of market share among a number of domestic material giants, the strong will remain strong. This is our focus. From the perspective of midstream Cell and downstream Pack, many important consumer devices currently choose China as their assembly base. This has also enabled Japanese and Korean battery cells and battery assembly plants to also settle in China, and the production capacity of domestic manufacturers is also developing rapidly. In the midstream cell segment, in order to cope with the gradual decline in product prices, more and more manufacturers are cutting into battery assembly and processing, including Sony, Samsung, LG, New Energy, BYD, etc., especially in square batteries and polymer batteries, which are fully occupied. The supply role of battery cell assembly. Since most of the prismatic batteries are used in mobile phone products, they are almost entirely assembled by battery cell factories. Almost all single cells of polymer batteries are fully assembled by battery cell factories independently. Only the applications of multiple series and parallel will be assembled and processed by assembly plants. Midstream Cell and downstream Pack have gradually evolved from the pure upstream and downstream relationship in the past to a cooperative and competitive relationship. The relationship between competition will gradually increase in the future.